This collection begins by discussing bendamustine, a nitrogen mustard derivative that consists of a meclorethamine group, butyric acid and a benzimidazole ring. Bendamustine has been synthesized in 1963, but in recent years it has been shown to be effective in treating lymphoproliferative diseases and solid tumors. Additionally, the authors present the efficacy of structure variation of bendamustine for the enhancement of the lipid membrane partitioning and tissue penetration, as well as drug-likeness. A total of 10 novel compounds are presented, wherein seven have higher Log P values and three have lower Log P values than that of bendamustine. Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 149 also discusses metabolic syndrome, a growing major clinical challenge for global health resultant from over-consumption of energy and obesity. Following this, the authors address the importance of antimicrobial resistance in human and veterinary medicine, focusing on antimicrobial peptides such as nisin as therapeutic alternatives. A study is presented wherein it is concluded that oligodendrocyte dysfunction in multiple system atrophy significantly affects subcortical anatomical pathways. Moreover, the spatial patterns of the glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy contrast with those reported for filamentous neuronal inclusions in other neurodegenerative diseases. Next, the authors summarize the recent discoveries expounding how Î2-cell identity and heterogeneity evolve in diabetes mellitus, discussing a new perspective of Î2-cell function salvage in diabetes mellitus development. Yeast cell cycle arrest and its consequences are analyzed in the subsequent chapter. Cell cycle arrest results in programmed cell death, such as apoptosis, wherein cells are made to commit suicide. The penultimate study evaluates the effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on cognitive and neurophysiological functions in patients with moderate cognitive impairment. Lastly, to investigate the role of CD44 in the development of allergic respiratory inflammation, a mouse model of airway allergic inflammation induced by transnasal administration of helminthic and mite allergens is used to analyze bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway hyper responsiveness.